جمعه 2 فروردین 1392  04:31 ب.ظ

غنا چیست؟

1 - ابن منظور، غنا را به صداى شادى‏آفرین معنى كرده است. (1)

2 - صاحب مصباح المنیر در تعریف غنا نوشته است: «ان الغناء الصوت‏»: غنا یعنى صوت. (2)

3 - بعضى غنا را بدین گونه تعریف كرده‏اند: «الغناء هو مد الصوت‏». غنا عبارت است از كشیدن صوت. (3)

4- ابن‏اثیر در كتاب النهایة خود از شافعى نقل كرده كه: «الغناء هو تحسین الصوت و ترقیقه‏». یعنى غنا زیبا و نازك كردن صوت است. (4)

5 - مرحوم محقق سبزوارى در كفایة‏الاحكام غنا را این گونه تعریف كرده: كشیدن صدا و بازگردانیدن آن در حلق كه حالت‏شنونده را تغییر دهد. (5)

از فحواى كلام مرحوم فیض این‏طور استنباط مى‏شود كه غنا را نظیر محقق سبزوارى معنا كرده‏اند.



6 - پیروان مذهب حنابله غنا را چنین تعریف مى‏كنند: زیبا ساختن صدا به شكلى كه سبب تغییر حال و تاثیر در عواطف و احساسات شود. (6)

7 - مرحوم علامه در قواعد مى‏فرمایند: «الغناء هو الصوت المشتمل على الترجیع‏» غنا صوت و آوازى است كه در آن ترجیع باشد. (7)

8 - مرحوم فخرالدین طریحى در مجمع‏البحرین و محقق كركى در جامع‏المقاصد گفته‏اند: «الغناء هو الصوت المشتمل على الترجیع المطرب‏» یعنى آوازى كه در گلو بازگردانده شود و حالت را تغییر دهد. (8)

9 - شیخ انصارى‏رحمه الله در كتاب المكاسب تعاریف زیادى براى غنا بیان فرموده و پس از جرح و تعدیل مى‏فرماید: مقتضاى عبارات كسانى كه غنا را تعریف كرده‏اند این است كه غنا درباره چگونگى صوت و خود صوت است و معنى كلام در آن نقشى ندارد و فرقى ندارد كه كلام باطل باشد یا حق، حكمت‏باشد یا قرآن یا رثاء مظلوم. (9)




نگارنده به منظور ارائه تعریفى جامع و مانع به فكر تهیه منابع و متون و دسترسى به آراء و نظریات حضرات فقهاى قدیم و جدید بودم و لكن همان ذهنیت پیش بر من غلبه یافت، مبنى بر این كه شاید نتوان تعریف جامع و مانع براى غنا پیدا كرد. پس، على‏رغم میل شدید تعریفى مقنع كه بتوان آن را موضوع حكم شرعى قرار داد، نیافتم. تعاریفى كه از غنا شده تنها شرح اسم و شرح لفظ به حساب مى‏آید. هیچ كدام از تعریفهایى كه بیان شد و تعریفهاى دیگر كه به خاطر جلوگیرى از اطاله كلام از آنها صرف‏نظر شمنطقى، دقیق، علمى و فنى نیستند. از جمله هیچ كدام از تعریفهاى فوق توان تعیین موضوع و مفهوم غناى حرام را ندارد چرا كه خواندن قرآن و مراثى با صداى خوش و بلند نه تنها منع نشده بلكه در مورد قرآن توصیه شده كه با صوت حسن و لحن زیبا خوانده شود. (10)


نظرات()   
   
Susie Rodd
دوشنبه 28 بهمن 1398 08:30 ب.ظ
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Susie Rodd
دوشنبه 28 بهمن 1398 08:30 ب.ظ
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Susie Rodd
دوشنبه 28 بهمن 1398 08:30 ب.ظ
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Susie Rodd
دوشنبه 28 بهمن 1398 08:30 ب.ظ
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Susie Rodd
دوشنبه 28 بهمن 1398 08:30 ب.ظ
Thanks for another great post. The place else could anyone get that type of info in such an ideal means of writing? I've a presentation next week, and I am at the search for such information.
Susie Rodd
دوشنبه 28 بهمن 1398 08:30 ب.ظ
Thanks for another great post. The place else could anyone get that type of info in such an ideal means of writing? I've a presentation next week, and I am at the search for such information.
Susie Rodd
دوشنبه 28 بهمن 1398 08:30 ب.ظ
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یکشنبه 27 بهمن 1398 07:27 ق.ظ
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یکشنبه 27 بهمن 1398 07:27 ق.ظ
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یکشنبه 27 بهمن 1398 07:27 ق.ظ
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یکشنبه 27 بهمن 1398 07:27 ق.ظ
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یکشنبه 27 بهمن 1398 07:27 ق.ظ
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یکشنبه 27 بهمن 1398 07:27 ق.ظ
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یکشنبه 27 بهمن 1398 07:27 ق.ظ
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یکشنبه 27 بهمن 1398 07:27 ق.ظ
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پنجشنبه 24 بهمن 1398 06:08 ب.ظ
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پنجشنبه 24 بهمن 1398 06:08 ب.ظ
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پنجشنبه 24 بهمن 1398 06:08 ب.ظ
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پنجشنبه 24 بهمن 1398 06:08 ب.ظ
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پنجشنبه 24 بهمن 1398 06:08 ب.ظ
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پنجشنبه 24 بهمن 1398 06:07 ب.ظ
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چهارشنبه 23 بهمن 1398 03:08 ب.ظ
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چهارشنبه 23 بهمن 1398 03:08 ب.ظ
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چهارشنبه 23 بهمن 1398 03:08 ب.ظ
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چهارشنبه 23 بهمن 1398 03:08 ب.ظ
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